Criminology in the System of Scientific Knowledge
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Changes in the social, political and economic development of society contribute to the development of sciences. Criminology is not an exception. The genesis and the current state of scientific views on the nature of inter-scientific links of criminology, the essence of its nature, its place in the system of sciences have been considered. The attention has been focused on the fact that these problems are interrelated and remain ones of the most debatable in the general theory of criminology. It has been established that domestic criminology is developing gradually, has logical change of the system, transits from one state to more perfect state. It has been stated that throughout the history of the development of criminology, different views were expressed regarding its nature. At the same time, not only scientific concepts, but also personal views of individual scientists changed repeatedly. Attention is drawn to the fact that, so far, criminologists have not reached an agreed position on these issues. Criminology implies using of the creative approach, situation conditionality, presence of alternatives when choosing certain ways, means, methods or techniques. It has been established that efficiency of investigation of robberies and brigandage depends on correct determination of an investigative situation; proposing and refining of all possible versions; organisation of interaction of an investigator with operational units. Therefore, she is associated with different sciences. Currently, two basic concepts coexist regarding the nature of criminology, according to one of them criminology is recognised as a special science of law, and according to the other – a science of synthetic (integral) nature. It has been concluded that criminology, based on the subject of the study, its nature and objectives, integrates the knowledge of legal, technical and natural sciences. At the same time, criminology is a unified fusion of knowledge, not an aggregate of sciences, since it is not possible to single out purely legal, natural or technical sections, that is, knowledge complexes as any fixed structures, which once again testifies the synthetic (integral) nature of its origin.
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