The Effects of Descriptive Imagery and Appeals on Emotions and Intentions Related to Pro-Environmental Behavior
Poškus, Mykolas Simas
Pilkauskaitė Valickienė, Rasa
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The aim of the present study is to assess whether reinforcing imagery affects the emotional valence and effectiveness of pro-environmental public service announcements (PSAs). Two experiments that utilized PSAs constructed from a combination of text-based appeal and an image were carried out. The first experiment used the following appeals; (1) highlighting injunction, (2) highlighting injunction together with a negative descriptive norm, and (3) highlighting injunction together with a positive descriptive norm. These appeals were written on a photograph that either depicted nature scenery or the same scenery with digitally added litter. The results of the first experiment demonstrated that a congruent combination of text appeals highlighting injunction together with a positive descriptive norm and positive descriptive imagery elicits the most positive emotions when compared to other appeal and image combinations. The second experiment demonstrated that appeals with positive descriptive norms and an injunctive message coupled with a congruent descriptive image affect behavioral intention more than appeals with an injunctive only message coupled with a congruent descriptive image, thus demonstrating the additive effect of descriptive imagery and appeals presented together.
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