"Different Speed" or Unified EU? Answer from the Point of View of Institutionalism Theory
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Purpose. The ongoing processes of European integration are confronted with the challenge of "different speed" EU. Union is often divided into "eurozone" - central and peripheral countries or old and new Europe. However, it is forgotten and ignored that "speeds" mean differences. Such heterogeneity can lead to a pessimistic EU scenario where European countries move at different speeds and do not always pursue the same goal. On the one hand, there is a presumption that the EU Member States must continue to seek solidarity through the development of a common administrative model and, on the other hand, the growth of sovereign powers. The question arises as to whether reforms carried out by EU Member States contribute to the overall integration of Member States in the field of institutionalism. Design/methodology/approach. Thus, it is through the functioning of institutes that economic phenomena and processes are analyzed with the help of institutionalism theory. Based on this theory, institutions define the rules of public gaming or human-made constraints that shape their interactions. In general, the representatives of the theory of institutionalism pay much attention to the analysis of the economic behavior and political motives of individuals. A multi-faceted approach has made institutionalist interpretations one of the most important tools for theoretical perspectives and organizational research. Institutionalism is the conventional theoretical wisdom of EU studies. Finding. EU integration has attracted particular attention since its origins as a result of the political and economic union of the Member States. Recognizing the administrative convergence of EU Member States as one of the key factors for achieving common goals and criteria, the challenges of a rapidly expanding organization have been overcome by several means over several decades. However, in the recent decade of the EU, with the global economic crisis, the Brexit talks, the Hungarian and Polish Eurosceptic political forces, the difficult-to-manage migration problem have hit Europe hard and have led many to thinking about the future of a united Europe. Research limitations/implications. Institutionalist interpretations helps to explain separate and different phenomena of European integration. However, institutionalism cannot explain long-term transformation of EU integration processes. What is more, viewpoint article is short article which focus on some of the key challenges, issues or developments in natural products research. This article is "opinion" style article, which gives the author’s perspective on a particular issue, backed up by the literature. Practical implications. Idea of EU as single federal state showed that there are too much of differences in the same union. EU integration may be initiated by agreements among governments, international institutions, once established, take on a political life of their own, and the rule-making authority delegated to them by states collectively binds and bounds governments by locking in patterns of collective behavior and ratcheting supranationality. Institutionalism approaches (sociological, historical, rational choice and discursive) help to explain different phenomena that have been occurring in the experience of EU integration. Originality/Value. There is a lack of research in scientific literature that examines and evaluates the importance of increasing administrative complexity and public administration fragmentation processes in EU Member States. It is clear that such diversity only complicates intergovernmental cooperation between countries, but there is a lack of scientific insight into what aspects of sovereign change in public service contribute to the strengthening of the EU and which weaken it. The assessment of change in public governance is also determined by the aspect of belonging to "central" and "peripheral" EU countries. The main argument of the critics of the "different speed" European model concerns the inequality of the states of such a union, the non-member countries of the EU will have much less chance of defining the details of their rules, and the pace and conditions of European unification will almost entirely be controlled by nuclear states. In this case EU would become even more fragmented in the future.
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