Pokomunistinių valstybių socialiniai modeliai
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After the collapse of communism, the post-communist countries had to transform their economic and social systems, democratize the political system, etc. The post-communist countries had to demonstrate their ability and potential to create strong social security system (social model), thereby ensuring the welfare for its citizens. The newly created social models had to rely on a certain notion of prosperity, while the state had to take care of the implementation of the welfare regime, formulate the methods and measures that are necessary for the achievement of the welfare state. There are many attempts at understanding, evaluating and describing the social (welfare) models and their development in post-communist states. Case studies and comparative studies of several countries are used most commonly. Some of the researchers attempt to put the postcommunist model into the traditional typology of G. Esping-Andersen’s three models – liberal, conservative and social democratic. However, there is a growing consensus, that the postcommunist states have the features of all three models, are unique and therefore form a separate model. Taking this into account, the aim of this paper is formulated – to identify and analyze social model of post-communist states. G. Esping-Andersen’s classification of welfare regimes is considered to be the main and most prevalent in the scientific community, however, many countries have different features of all G. Esping-Andersen’s types and do not match just one of the models exactly. It is for this reason that the typology of G. Esping-Andersen has received a lot of criticism of its rigor and therefore there are many attempts to correct, adjust or extend this typology, usually by adding one or more models. One of these attempts applies to the search for a post-communist model. The analysis of social models proves that the social policy of post-communist countries does not reflect any type of G. Esping-Andersen’s typology and is so mixed and specific that it should be considered as a separate post-communist model. The post-communist countries are characterized by a lower level of economic and social development, high levels of corruption, high migration rates, social inequality, lower levels of social protection, etc. It was determined that the welfare system of the post-communist states was influenced by three factors: the legacy of the past, the influence of the West and political reforms. The legacy of the past is, above all, communist experience, although it has been proven that the origins of the development of social models and welfare of the post-communist countries backs to the German and Austro-Hungarian empires. The influence of the West is mostly connected to the European Union (because states had to meet strict requirements and make social, economic and political changes in order to become the members of EU) and other international organizations (such as World Bank, International Monetary Fund). Political reforms are mainly related to expanding citizens’ rights, increasing social protection and social services. The biggest challenge to the creation of social model and a welfare system was the period of transformation, which took place under difficult circumstances, and was accompanied by shocks, upheavals: in the early 1990’s the economic recession has begun, the legacy of the socialist model has led to a limitation of financial resources, the state has faced major demographic changes, the socioeconomic structure of society has changed, savings in the social security system increased as well as poverty, unemployment, inequality etc.
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