Visuomenės ontologinio saugumo samprata: Lietuvos nacionalinio saugumo ontologinė dimensija
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Research on National Security after the Cold War revolves largely on the so called sectoral concept of security as defined by the Copenhagen School of security studies. The main sectors of national security – military, economic, political, societal, environmental, and informational – all contain material as well as ideational objects to secure. The aim of this article is to look at the problem of national security from a completely different perspective, i.e., to evaluate the ontological dimension of collective security of a society as opposed to physical. The concept of ontological security was made popular among social scientists by sociologist Anthony Giddens, yet as a heuristic instrument so far it was mostly applied at the level of individual. Taking into account the differences between an individual and a collectivity it is still argued in this article that ontological security needs often override the material needs of a given actor. In order to evaluate the ontological dimension of collective security, a case study of Lithuania is applied in the second section of this article. Three components of ontological security are investigated – markers of inclusion into Lithuanian society, collective historical narrative, and external relations of Lithuania as a state-society complex. The empirical facts revealed by this brief inquiry – i.e., virtual ostracism of “impure” Lithuanians and imigrants in terms of citizenship rights, rutinized conflict with Russia emanating partly (but not only) from a black-and-white narrative of history – all point to prove the main thesis of this article: any societal body is prone to risk its physical survival driven by the ontological security imperative to have a stable collective reality with all the “objective truths” and “real threats” it entails.
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