Piliečių įtraukties į viešąjį valdymą teorinės apibrėžtys
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The objective of the article is to analyse the notion of citizens‘ inclusion in the context of new public governance perspective. The relevant academic literature on the concept of inclusion is reviewed focusing on conceptual relationship of citizens‘ inclusion with citizens‘ participation and citizens‘ engagement. Inclusion and participation are two distinct dimensions of citizens‘ engagement. The citizens‘ inclusion is defined as the continuous, ongoing involvement of citizens into the process of co-creation of public services, public policies and programmes facilitating definition and mitigation of public problems. Efforts of governments to develop acting and participating communities, to organize inclusive management and to co-produce public services are analysed more thoroughly in the article. Inclusion may be enhanced by building more capable communities, besides introducing various public engagement mechanisms. However, inclusion efforts have limited impact on participation as not only the costs of participation, but also the importance of issues or participation itself as perceived by citizens emerge as important intervening factors between efforts to include and the actual outcome of these efforts.
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