Įgimtų papiliarinio rašto sandaros anomalijų atsispindėjimas pėdsakuose
Nowadays the investigation of the criminal object is a part of any crime investigation. Various objects are under investigation, however most research in the field has concentrated on the inner surface of the hand, i.e., dactiloscopy. This is so because of two factors: first, fingerprints are often detected in a crime scene; second, fingerprint patterns are specific: individual, permanent and are able to restore. By tricks of nature, however, some fingerprint patterns are more or less abnormal and this abnormality can be revealed during fingerprint investigation. Abnormalities of fingerprint patterns are classified into congenital abnormalities that developed during the prenatal period; and deformities caused by environmental factors on the skin. Abnormalities of fingerprint patterns are neither reviewed in Lithuanian criminalistics textbooks nor included on the syllabus for dactiloscopic expertise. The paper is the first review of innate abnormalities of fingerprint patterns in Lithuanian. The kinds of abnormalities have been selected subjectively on the basis of their occurrence in criminalistic and forensic practice. Hence, the review focuses on dysplasia, which is classified into the partial and complete, the irregular pairing and cuspal patterns. Detection of any fingerprint pattern abnormality during forensic expertise is very complicated because of many factors. First, there are different kinds of abnormalities and their level of development; second, the quality of prints on the surface is different; and finally, working conditions for the crime scene investigation are usually difficult. In the conclusions the author suggests abnormalities of fingerprint patterns to be included into the syllabus for dactiloscopic expertise, crime scene and forensic investigation.
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