Modeling of Creative Clusters Governance under the Smart Specialization
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Concept of governance of creative clusters as economic organization of creative society under the Smart specialization logic is new and fragmentally explored. Thesis presents the analysis of understanding of Smart specialization and proposes possible extensions, explores theoretical views of creative society and its features, analyzes the theory and development of clusters, features of creative clusters, proposes governance model of Lithuanian creative clusters under the Smart specialization conditions. Theoretical analysis has revealed, that Smart Specialization is non-linear, non-industrial, three-dimensional specialization, integrating different region-specific contexts into economically viable activities. Creative society is a postmodern society that is a contemporary understanding of the information and knowledge society concepts. Creative society is foundation of creative economy, specific to the geographical place it is located, based on the usage of technologies, organized in non-hierarchical form and opting for exclusivity. First part of empirical research was based on analysis of governance documents of European union regions with highest proportion of firms and jobs in the creative clusters and highest share of creative and cultural industries in the reginal economy. Second part of empirical research was bases on semi-structured interview with Lithuanian cluster management organizations of official creative clusters. Analysis of best European Union governance practices revealed, that the most important criteria in creative clusters governance are education and access to global markets. Analysis of Lithuanian creative clusters revealed, that they are relatively young, local and project-based organizations with limited connections to the knowledge institutions and mostly dependent on state support. Governance model of Lithuanian creative clusters was based on the logic of Smart specialization, which should be applied to identify and develop economically most suitable connection of creative society, creative economy and creative clusters.