Szkolenie ekspertów kryminalistyki w Holandii.
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Demands of the police and the courts in gathering evidences and investigating crimes stimulated special training programmes of the experts in the Netherlands. In the Dutch laboratory of forensic science (FSL) as in other fields, the necessity of training of experts is considerably narrow specialisation emerged. While applying modern technologies, new methods of investigation and while trends of criminality are undergoing change, experts with general technical education do not correspond to the requirements of contemporary legal system. The fields of technical knowledge have been differentiated consecutively and the following disciplines as separate ones have been marked out: 1. Toxicology; 2. Examinations of hairs and fibre; 3. Serology; 4. Examinations of weapons and ammunition; 5. Examinations of shot traces; 6. Examinations of explosives. Moreover, the examinations of palm-prints (fingerprints) documents, drugs, road accidents, ecological, computer and other have been segregated. There are lists of experts who specialise in particular fields in the Netherlands. Every expert in addition to special knowledge in particular field must have general legal, criminalistics knowledge and knowledge about the Dutch organisational system of Police and Courts. Modern expert training programme in the institutions of FSL in the Netherlands consists of two parts: 1. general pan, where all the expert candidates have to participate in; 2. specialised part, devoted to the experts of certain field. Employee of FSL in the Netherlands may collect knowledge in two ways: person is either trained as expert from the beginning or is accepted to one of the laboratories as a technical employee and later is allowed to try again to become an expert. According to the general part of the progi-amme, the expert candidates follow some short training courses, which last for 40 days in total. All the courses are divided into 4 blocks of theoretical and practical exercises. Especially a lot of attention is paid to the self-study of the candidates. Expert candidate receives a full package of training material. Candidates are trained by collaborators of FSL, lecturers of other institutions, police officers from detective technical sections, criminalists technicians. According to the second part of the programme, expert candidates study special disciplines of certain field. Later on they take graduation examination and are listed into the certain specialisation list of experts in the Netherlands. Expert training programme is presented and general training aims and methods are pointed out.
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