Nuteistųjų socialinė reabilitacija.
This article treats with theory and practice of inmate's social rehabilitation from 1971 (when the Correctional Code was initiated) to 2002 (when the Punishment Code was initiated). In the Correctional Code social rehabilitation was called correction and reduction of inmates but it was only a declaration because there were too many of them and the correction was not possible. The researches (from 1971 1990) showed that the main officer's actions included prohibitions and more stiffen regime. Now, when the Punishment Code is in force, correction and education of inmates is changed by rehabilitation but the title of the Code is still pointed to the punishment. The aim of this article is to analyze results of research and anticipate perspective of social rehabilitation of inmates and officer's readiness and assumptions for rehabilitation. Rehabilitation: „Process of seeking to improve a criminals character and outlook so that he or she can function in society without committing other crimes“ [3, p. 1290]. Social rehabilitation of inmates is a process of interaction between officer's of correctional institutions, community, institutions of society etc. and inmates which helps to restore a good reputation of inmates and human relationship between criminals and victims, compensation of material damage, to restore human rights, to strike previous convictions and to prepare the inmate for integration to society that he could be useful personality for himself, his family and society. Social rehabilitation is a part of education and socialization. The research’s hypothesis: effectiveness of inmate's social rehabilitation and public security depends on: 1) empathetic relations between employees of penitentiary institutions and inmates; 2) satisfaction of inmate's needs by working. Results of the research. All Lithuanian penitentiary institutions employee’s experiences in 1971 were divided in egocentric –2 %; anger – 35 %; empathy – 25%; and other experiences – 38 %. In 2002 the results of researches have changed very much: egocentric – 50 %, anger for inmates – 17%; empathy – 33 %. The employee's egocentric experiences enlarged from 2 to 50 %. It shows that personal problems of employees increased. It is very important that employee's anger reduced from 35 to 17 % and empathy increased from 25 to 33 %. It shows that European penitentiary structures influenced employee's of Lithuanian penitentiary system. Although the results of inmates experiences shows that empathy of inmates to employees in correctional institutions in 1971 and in 2002 is stable and equal to zero percent. Recently the main task of social rehabilitation is inmate's empathy's training. The second proposition – inmate's needs satisfaction by working – fully confirmed. By observation, bibliographical data analysis, questioning, summary of independent characteristics, educational experiment and statistical methods we can confirm that those inmates who satisfy their needs by work have positive attitudes towards each other, positive relationship even with prison's wardens and tries to participate actively in social rehabilitation. The main directions of social rehabilitation are: 1. To exchange one-way relationship (which are the part of the present theory's of behaviourism) to constructive interaction between employees and inmates. This is one of successful social rehabilitation conditions. 2. Penitentiary institutions employees’ empathy to inmates is growing up but inmate's empathy to employees is equal to zero percent. The main task of inmate's social rehabilitation is empathy's training. 3. The satisfaction of inmates needs optimize their social rehabilitation by working.
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