Parašo ir vardinio įrašo tyrimo problemos rašysenos ekspertizėje identifikuojant asmenį.
Handwriting examination is one of the oldest kinds of the forensic examination. Its goal is identification of persons that wrote and signed documents. One of basic problems for handwriting expert is the solution of identification tasks. Identification tasks are solved by determination of person who wrote text and numerals, signed any documents, or if some documents are wrote or signed by the same person. This article looks into problems and experimental findings of identification examinations of the signature and nominal entry (name and surname, further will be called as nominal entry). With spreading widely and improving computer technique experts only from time to time meet with long hand written texts. Hand written text and entries now form about 15proc. of all received handwriting examinations. 85proc. investigated by examination objects are nominal entries and signatures or signatures alone. Such objects of examination occur in contracts, wills, loan papers and various financial documents and et al. In many cases the signature and nominal entry are one and only evidence that helps experts, prosecutors and judges to establish case circumstances after investigation. For this reason the topical problem is the investigation of research peculiarities, methods, comparison problems and evaluation of these objects – nominal entries and signatures. Nominal entries and signatures arise many problems, such as inter – comparisons, preparation of materials for investigation, quality of objects themselves. Besides identification tasks, handwriting experts solve diagnostic tasks too, so special methods (that help to solve diagnostic tasks: for example, whether person wrote and signed in conditions of stress, intoxication, illness and etc.) are applied. It must be noticed, that for the receiving more precise conclusions expert must take into account the informativness and quality of investigation object, to go deep into case circumstances (related with suspects, their education, their writing and subscription practice and possibilities, health conditions and etc.), to learn in what circumstances document was signed, and to apply special investigation methods accordingly. If several methods are applied in the investigation, first of all, investigation results obtained by the separate method are generalized and evaluated individually. Later results of all used methods are evaluated. In this article scientific basing and results of experiment are described, in which common and special signs of signature and nominal entry (name and surname) were compared. It was attempted to prove by this experiment that dependence of coincidences and disparities of common and special signs of signatures and nominal entries allows to make inter – comparison and the result of such comparison is additional information in the whole examined research signs. Inquired problem of this article showed that additional extended possibilities in comparative analysis must be examined and searched. Results of experiment allow for giving such conclusions: 1. Carried out experiment showed statistical dependence of coincidences and disparities of common and special signs of signatures and nominal entries. 2. During experiment we established that disparities of common signs (with the exception of developed handwriting in referred case) don't allow expert to make presumptions as if the signature and nominal entry belong to different person and on the contrary. 3. Results of experiment showed that for 26,75 proc. of searched signatures non–literal, additional elements and roll out can be compared with letters of nominal entries and its elements. 4. When objects are researched in examination practice, special methods must be applied for investigation of separate objects next to common methods of handwriting and signatures examination. Such special methods give additional information in the whole of signs.
- Straipsniai / Articles