Kaltė ir jos nustatymas bylose, susijusiose su kelių transporto eismo saugumo ir transporto priemonių eksploatavimo taisyklių pažeidimais.
The author presents opinions of Lithuanian and foreign scientists on the issue of forms and content of guilt in criminal acts against road traffic safety and motor vehicle operation. In the article forms of guilt – criminal negligence and recklessness – which can be considered to be typical to road traffic rules violation, are examined using theoretical material, cases of judicial practise and results of searching analysis. It should be noted that intentional violation of road traffic safety and motor vehicle rules that causes criminal consequences foreseen in Article 281 of Criminal Code of Lithuania /large material damages, moderate or serious bodily injury, death of human being/ cannot be classified as a crime against road traffic safety. In these cases such intentional criminal acts should be qualified as crimes against person’s life, health or property. The author of this article reviews different attitude of criminal law scientists towards a problem of guilt in road traffic crimes. Furthermore, the author asserts that application of concept of composite guilt trying to identify a motor vehicle driver’s psychical relation to signs of corpus delicti is not evidential enough. The author states that a violation of road traffic rules itself does not institute a separate corpus delicti but it causes a breach of administrative law. So motor vehicle driver’s perception of a fact of road traffic rule violation has an impact only to individualisation of punishment. In general, criminal acts foreseen in Article 281 of Criminal Code of Lithuania have one and undivided form of guilt. Nullum crimen sine culpa principle, defined in Article 2 part 3 of Criminal Code of the Republic of Lithuania, obligates institutions of pre-trial investigation and courts to explore and evaluate a motor vehicle driver’s psychical relation to criminal consequences and other objective signs of corpus delicti properly and fairly. But in judicial practice a detailed analysis of criminal recklessness or criminal negligence content in motor vehicle driver’s act is performed rather rarely. It should be noted that identification of these sorts of guilt, clarification of motor vehicle driver’s perception of a rule violation fact, other factors related to content of guilt should be precisely examined in concrete cases. Therefore, in this article intellectual and voluntary elements of criminal recklessness and criminal negligence are examined in theoretical and practical aspects.
- Straipsniai / Articles