Žmogaus teisių dichotomija: universalija ar partikuliarizmas?
On the basis of comparative, philosophical and criticism methods, human rights dichotomy is analysed in the paper as a distinctive feature of human rights in the 21st century, underlying the conflict between the conceptions of Western and Eastern human rights. In the contemporary world the idea of human rights poses the appropriate legal requirements, even though their claiming for being universal is problematic. The universality of human rights is the fruit of the European history. However, the Eastern societies have a great number of specific faiths and values, which are in confrontation with the traditional individualistic system of values of the liberal conception of human rights. The critics of human rights from the Moslem and Asian countries assert that there is an alternative for the existing conception of human rights and that it would be better if their standpoints become universally prevalent. In the opposite case, the ethnic and religious tension will ruin the traditional social structure of the said countries, and individualism as a central axis of the Western conception of human rights will lead to destruction. Thus, a discussion arises whether a conception of human rights is universal and general, whether each cultural tradition may have separate and individual conceptions of human rights. A question is raised whether a conflict exists between the liberal doctrine of the universal human rights and respect for the cultural diversity, i.e. whether the human rights should be universal or not.
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