Teisingumas: jo formos ir socialinė reikšmė (metodologinis aspektas)
1. When a lot of problems, which must be solved immediately, exist in the state at the same time, a question arises, what problem is integral while solving it all the other social problems could be solved. Such a problem is the problem of justice. 2. The social significance of justice is linked with abilities of justice: a) to form the inter–confidence of people, to stimulate to act them jointly, to enlarge the possibilities of the realisation of human rights by their collaboration and compromise; b) to stabilize legislation (justice forbids to legislate laws which could be useful only for one social group); c) to enlarge the lawfulness (laws, which don't establish the justice can not be executed zealously); d) to unite market economics with the „the economics of the man”. 3. This ability of justice (it's social significance) is grounded on the mutual transformation of spiritual and material values: the quality of the human spirit predetermines the quality of objects, laws, institutions and methods of the social order. The quality of objects is only the objectivization (exterior manifestation) of the spiritual quality of their creator. Not laws, not state's institutions, not principles of market economics, but concrete persons act in such a way how they are disposed for morals, justice and lawfulness. 4. Justice makes an influence on the behaviour of the person in it's three forms: ethical, legal and social; which community is based on the unity of rights and duties, and differences are based on the change of this unity: a) ethical justice – the unity of rights and duties, which exists as the interior confidence of a person and which is guarantied by the free personal self–determination, the conscience and the opinion of society. b) legal justice – the unity of rights and duties, which is established by the law and is guarantied by the state's coertion. The ethical justice is preceding against the legal justice as the free self–determination is preceding against the imperative obligation. c) The social justice is the collaboration of a person and the state while creating and supporting the unity of rights and duties of the concrete person. This new form of justice presupposes that the subject of rights and duties isn't the same person; the other subject (the state, the society or the other social union) takes over duties which are necessary for the legalization of the subjective right to the desirable value. There is a new fact that a person, for whom the execution of duties is assigned, is exempted from this execution under the norms of morals and the positive law. The origin of the social justice is the social solidarity which arises from that fact that a person lives in the civilized community and that all members of such a community are necessary for each other not only as the subjects for exchange of material services, but also as the subjects who create and support the humanity. 5. The relation of three forms of justice isn't the relation of the competition, it is the relation of their coexistence. 6. The apprehension, that legal measures are not sufficient for the support of the stability of the society, requests to develop various forms of justice; their realisation stimulates the modern social state to function as the state which is submitted not only to the rule of law, but also to ethics.
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