Decentralizacijos reformų teoriniai ir taikomieji aspektai
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The forms of decentralization, focusing on the main features and differences of these forms, are analyzed in this article. It is shown that each type of decentralization - political, administrative, fiscal, and market - has different characteristics, policy implications, and conditions for success. There are defined the main goals of decentralization reforms and identified the tools for theirs achievement. Decentralization is considered as a sine qua non not only in the development of local self-government, but with regard to civil society as a whole and the greatest factor of social change. Decentralization can address poverty, gender inequality, environmental concerns, and the improvement of healthcare, education and access to technology. Moreover, decentralization does not only affect government and civil service, but is conditional on the involvement of community organizations, stakeholders in the private sector, international aid organizations and citizens. The measurements of decentralization are analyzed too. Since, the standard measures fail to take into account the different degrees of decentralization and the true decision-making authority of sub-national institutions over revenues and expenditures, there are focusing on the search for more impartial and integrated evaluation indicators.
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