Pensijų fondų raida ir ypatybės.
Up to now there is no consistent effective pensions' system created, therefore, there is often rising a question of a pensions' reform in the countries of the market economy. The government is seeking for the ways which would help to built such pensions' systems, which would help to satisfy constantly increasing payments' needs of government's pension funds. An understanding of a pension systems variety and their detailed analysis is extremely important for the contemporary Lithuanian situation. The world's practice is important for Lithuania not only from cognitive aspect, but also from practical: other countries, which implemented reforms to their pensions' systems, after-reform results would allow to design the further development of the Lithuanian pensions' system. The desire to get acquainted with and analyze the problems of the present Lithuanian pensions' system, its merits and shortages as well as the ways of solving them have inspired to make an analysis of the pensions' funds development. The deepest traditions of pension funds are in Anglo-Saxon countries. These are mostly employers’ pension funds, which are organized as trusts – separate legal units managed by the right of confidence. The founders of the trusts appoint the trustees, who manage the fund. For the reason that in Anglo-Saxon tradition it is not usual to define, what is allowed and what is forbidden in the activity of the pension fund, but is defined, how the trustees of the pension funds have to act, it bears numerous complicated rules in the law. These rules define the management procedures and responsibilities. Some of Western European countries’ pension funds are sponsored from general company’s inflow. Payment privileges are applied for these balance payments, although, they stay in the company and a company uses them as its own funds. According to the model, the actual management of a pension fund is in the hands of the employer. To manage it is appointed a responsible person and a pension fund is managed as a one more company’s unit. The companies of that kind usually are big and have a bureaucratic management structure. Pension funds as separate units do not exist there and companies, which establish them, have a status of a join-stock company. Although traditionally pension funds have been established as employers’ pension funds, presently is growing the tendency that they will turn into a public (open) funds. Public (open) funds, which are not related to any concrete company and are managed on commercial basis, are becoming more and more popular in the world.
- Articles / Straipsniai