Kriminalistinės lingvistinės ekspertizės uždavinių sistema.
Comprehension of criminalistic linguistic problems by separate scientists criminalists differs very much, so various conceptions of these problems are presented, sometimes the same items are named differently not only in special literature, but in criminalistics manual too. Frequently only names of tasks groups are presented and nobody explains what tasks form these groups in author’s opinion. It was understandable twenty years ago when theory and practice of this examination was in initial stage or the formation, but from the first maintained dissertation in this area till our times many decades past and systematization of linguistic examination tasks become practical and theoretical necessity. Every task arose in practice may be solved if it is scientific validated. So, the creation of tasks system is vital question for the development of scientific basics of this examination. The aim of this investigation is analysis various conceptions of tasks of linguistic examination and presentation the system of Lithuanian texts linguistic examination tasks. Investigated problem research analysis in this work limits itself with Lithuanian, Ukrainian, Russian criminalists works as scientists from countries of Middle and West Europe working in this area pay more attention to possibilities of the application of linguistics science in forensic examination but not to systematization tasks of this examination. Besides, linguistic examination of Lithuanian texts for understandable reasons is traditionally related with East Europe (Ukraine, Russia) school of forensic linguistic examinations and for this reason it was decided to analyse the situation in this medium primarily and more extensive analyse will be left for the future. In this paper the evolution of the formulation of linguistic examination tasks from 1980 is presented and interrelations of these tasks are evaluated. System of Lithuanian texts linguistic examination tasks is presented on the base of analysis of literary sources and examinational practice. Some questions are not discussed in literature as its are novel in examinational practice. Some of its are only mentioned in literary sources. Those of its which in late years become valid in examinational practice for its practical significance were included to some place in the system on the base of its relations with other tasks known in criminalistic examinations. An example is diagnostic task - determination of the author’s self-dependence in text creation. In this work such system of Lithuanian texts criminalistic linguistic examination is proposed: Identification tasks: to determine author of text (or to prove that creator of text isn’t suspect person). Classification tasks: I) to determine if Lithuanian text author’s mother tongue is Lithuanian or not Lithuanian; 2) to determine authors education and 3) to determine the area of authors activity. Diagnostic tasks: I) to determine whether author created text in the ordinary or non-ordinary state; 2) to determine if text language was distorted intentionally; 3) to determine if author created text self-dependently and whether the text wasn’t by one person dictated to another person. Non-traditional tasks at present differ very much and still aren’t determined. This system must be consider as reflecting present requirements and possibilities. Its changes will depend on future requirements of forensic linguistics.
- Articles / Straipsniai