Pagrindinės šiuolaikinio terorizmo ideologinės kryptys.
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The beginning of the XXI century obviously demonstrated a new threat to human security – terrorism. This social phenomenon has been extending its scope and has been intensifying, and by its content is acquiring the form of alternative war. The situation presses for urgent measures of prevention, as a further development of the phenomenon may lead to catastrophic results. In order to work out preventive measures aimed at neutralization of terrorism, it is imperative to find out the reasons of the phenomenon, as the preventive measures must be firstly targeted at elimination of the reasons. In order to attain these goals, it is necessary to conduct historical analysis of development of terrorism. This article deals with the aforementioned analysis. Main focus is not on the review of terrorist organizations, nor on research of terrorist acts, but on the postulates of terrorist ideologies, which predetermine one or another kind of terrorism. The article deals with the left, the right, the nationalistic and the religious terrorism ideologies. The terrorism ideologies are analyzed by the review of the historical context of their establishment and development, by discussing their essence, motives, the reasons of appearance of such ideologies and spreading. With respect to relevance and complexity, main focus of the work is the religious terrorism; however, it is presented on the plane of all kinds of terrorism. The conducted research shows that terrorist ideologies may be established by the distortion of any system of belief: patriotism, religion, political views, etc. Terrorism ideologies are very different, but they all have an identical strategy: violence against innocent people is employed to terrify the community and thus to attain one or another goal matching a specific ideology. This strategy is universal and it is a generality of all terrorists. The article drives at the conclusion that, despite the absurdity and cruelty of the terrorism strategy, the values, for which terrorists fight, are perceptible by mind and can be logically explained with the help of historical method of cognition, by analysis of geopolitical situation, its change, cultural, religion, economic criteria, as well as by going into elementary human feelings. It can be stated, without justifying of terrorism, that its reasons are objective, existing in reality, therefore can be understood and identified. This leads to another conclusion – a real possibility to eliminate the reasons of terrorism, i.e. to conduct prevention of the phenomenon.
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