Ar tarptautinė paprotinė teisė įtvirtina įsipareigojimą erga omnes vykdyti baudžiamąjį persekiojimą dėl sunkių žmogaus teisių pažeidimų?
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In this article, the author aims to suggest legal guidelines enabling a well argued answer that the obligation to prosecute for grave violations of human rights is apart of customary international law of an erga omnes nature. In the first part of the article the decisions of international arbitral tribunals are analysed. In the second part the Genocide convention, Geneva conventions for the protection of the victims of war, Convention against torture all of which provide for an obligation of States to prosecute are analysed. The third part considers the decisions of the UN Human rights Committee, European Court of Human Rights and the American Court of Human Rights concerning the obligation to prosecute. In their practice all of these institutions acknowledge that States are subject to this obligation. This finds an especially clear expression with respect to the prohibition of torture. The article seeks to demonstrate that the most proper legal basis for this obligation would be the obligation to respect and ensure respect to the rights included in the respectful international agreements. It is alleged that separation of an obligation to respect rights from an obligation to ensure rights is artificial and that it should be read uniformly, without making a distinction between ,respect" and ,ensure respect".
- Straipsniai / Articles