Aristotelio teisingumo distinkcija šiuolaikiniame teisiniame diskurse.
Justice is a principal of social life, implying a necessity to take into consideration not only interests of one’s own but also those of other person’s, therefore implementation thereof in the modern law system is understood as a striving to reinforce the equilibrium of interests. When defining the sphere of justice as a legal order, a normative system regulating the actions between subjects, association should with the distribution and equalisation of the goods and loads. Then, the striving for the balance of social interests may be expressed by the formula „to give everybody his due“ (suum cuique tribuere). The criteria for differentiating what is to everybody theirs are provided in Aristotle’s distinction of justice. Studying the justice distinction presented by Aristotle it is asserted, that this distinction could be considered a formula in analyzing the modern conception of justice and its influence to the modern law. Using the analytic research method Aristotle discerned three main strains of iustitia legalis, iustitia commutativa and iustitia distributiva. The iustitia legalis , discerned by Aristotle is associated with the conception of legitimacy – i. e. the necessity to comply with the common requirements of the rules of behaviour. Nevertheless, Aristotle did not keep justice and legitimacy identic. For law because of its generality cannot comprise the variety of events, sometimes the exceptio to the rule – epieikeia must be applied in order not to make the law wrong. Also, the aspects of Aristotle’s part justice discerning two main forms of social behaviour, for which the requirements of justice are applied, are very important. First of all, those are the relations of equal exchange, when the attainment of justice is considered after the equality of interchange of goodies, acts, rights and duties is stated. The remuneration and the requital here can be treated both from negative and positive sides (iustitia commutativa).
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