Tarptautinės teisės aiškinimas antrojoje scholastinėje filosofijoje.
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The grandees of so called second scholasticism – Dominican Francisco de Vitoria (1480 –1546) and Jesuit Francisco Suarez (1548 –1617) – must be reckoned among founders of international law theory. Their works, issued before famous treatise “On the Law of War and Peace” by another father of international law Hugo Grotius, contained solid system of that law. This system, referring to Roman law, the works of Thomas Aquinas, St. Isidore of Seville, St. Raymund of Penafort and John of Legnano, analyzed nature and origin of international law, declared inseparable rights of nations and states, determined sufficient conditions for defending those rights in just war (bellum justum). De Vitoria and Suarez regarded international law as a set of customary rules and principles regulating relations among all or almost all the nations and states of the world. Those rules were considered the certain principles of natural law accommodated to the sphere of international relations. According to de Vitoria and Suarez, by trial and error, nations and states gradually derive from natural law more or less general customs of international conduct. One of the most significant aspects of international law theory in second scholasticism is the list of fundamental and inseparable rights of nations and states,presented by de Vitoria. This list includes the rights to existence, equality and political sovereignty; the right to international migration and trade; the right and duty to lend a military aid to nation, victimized by domestic tyrants or threatened or attacked by external aggressor. These rights must be regarded as a certain equivalent of some principles of modern international law, namely, sovereignty of states; noninterference into internal affairs; interdiction to use force and even to threaten by it; equality and self-determination of nations; freedom of migration; humanitarian intervention etc.
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