Comparative analysis of 1974 and 1992 Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area.
In 1970s Baltic States apprehended that the Baltic Sea, a distinct marine region with grave environmental problems, called for an effective protective system. The initiatives of the Baltic States resulted in Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area which was signed on 22 March 1974. Material provisions of this convention, which came into force on 3 May 1980, and its shortcomings are analysed in Part 2 of this paper. In the light of political changes and developments in international environmental as well as maritime law, a new convention was signed in 1992 by all the states bordering the Baltic Sea as well as the European Community and it entered into force on 17 January 2000. The most important novelties of this convention as compared with the one signed in 1972 are described in Part 4 of this paper. Despite major improvements introduced by the Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area, 1992, it failed to rectify some of the shortcomings inherited from its predecessor and reviewed in Part 5 of this paper. At the end of this paper certain conclusions as regards the sufficiency of the existing framework in order to achieve the objectives of the Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area, 1992, are drawn.
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