Europos Sąjungos direktyvos 2004/83/EB įtaka aiškinant pabėgėlio sąvoką.
The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees embody fundamental provisions of refugee law. However, since the adoption of these documents the world has changed dramatically and the laws are not developing fast enough in order to catch up with dynamically changing contemporary situations. The application and interpretation of definition of a refugee was developed through traditional practice of Western states, which was influenced by two world wars and the Cold War, when refugees from Africa or Asia were uncommon. The Qualification Directive specifically aims at ensuring that the member states apply common qualification criteria for persons who need international protection in line with the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. The author supports the statement that the Qualification Directive in principle aims at bringing back under the definition of refugee those, who have been left outside of its scope during the last decades as a result of the restrictive interpretation and application of the definition of refugee. The provisions of the Qualification Directive on non-state persecution (Article 6) require proper interpretation and application of 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and essentially resolve the previously existing acute problem of interpretation and application of non-state persecution. 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees does not require relating persecution to accountability of the state, yet it does require providing protection from the state. Therefore, an analogy between actors of persecution and actors of protection should not be applied. The provisions of Article 7 of the Qualification Directive on possibility of protection of international organizations create problems regarding compliance with the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and its problems of restrictive interpretation and application. The problems of interpretation of definition of refugee, which have not been solved yet by the Qualification Directive, should be addressed by its coming amendments and the practice of the European Court of Justice. In addition, on national level the Member States should interpret the Qualification Directive taking into account their international obligations under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. Article 3 of the Qualification Directive allows Member States to apply more favourable standards than defined in the Qualification Directive and this approach should enable the Member States to apply the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees fully and inclusively even when the Qualification Directive allows restrictive interpretation and application of the refugee definition.
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