Le droit de protester en tant que forme spécifique de l’exercice du droit de réunion
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The freedom of every person to assembly in a peaceful manner is expressly recognized in all international human rights instruments as well as in national law. However, the implementation of such commitments often remains a challenge for states, which can impose various restrictions on the right to assembly and sometimes abuse this power. Peaceful protests often play an important role in expressing public concerns and providing an opportunity for dialogue with authorities. Therefore, the purpose of this publication is to explore the significance of the right to hold and participate in peaceful assemblies in the context of mass protest and other forms of peaceful demonstrations. The present article is divided into two parts. Part 1 looks at the particularities of the general definition of an assembly, different types and forms of public gatherings and examines different legal bases that justify the restrictions on freedom of assembly. Part 2 offers a concise view on the problems related to the effective enjoyment of the freedom to assembly and the significant role of state’s authorities in this process. This article analyses state’s positive obligations related to a duty to protect the peaceful public events, to guarantee the maintenance of public order and the interests of the rest of the community as well as state’s negative obligations not to unduly interfere with the right to peaceful assembly. The publication thoroughly analyses the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights as well as the United Nations Human Rights Committee’s communications related to the violations of the freedom to assembly.
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