Lygtinio paleidimo instituto retrospektyva užsienio valstybėse ir Lietuvoje.
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The comparative historical method provided the possibility to perform a retrospective analysis of parole release, learn about the origin of the institution and the trends of its development within the historical dialectics, evaluate its social importance and benefits, distinguish its positive and negative characteristics, and forecast the model that would be more acceptable in Lithuania today. In order to create a versatile standpoint regarding the variety of conceptions (models) of this institution, the author analyzes the evolution of release on parole, because without an analysis of the historic world outlook it would be impossible to perceive the essence of the modern model of release on parole, to disclose its content, to identify the factors influencing its formation and foresee the perspectives of its further evolution. It should be noted that a higher level of public safety could be ensured only by the implementation of custodial sentence as ultima ratio. There is a need to find alternative substitutes for the most severe imprisonment penalty. Thus, conditional release occurred later than the custodial sentence. In the legal literature, three distinct development phases of criminal sanctions are usually identified: prevalence of severe physical punishment, rise of imprisonment values, growth of the importance of alternatives to prison. Various alternatives to imprisonment can be found in the written law and criminal procedure practice since the nineteenth century. Some procedural rules appeared in the sixteen–seventeen centuries. Meanwhile, the twentieth century, especially its second half, is important because new criminal sanctions were developed in most European and North American countries. Current correctional crowding problems force penal law researchers to rethink sentencing and correctional policies focusing on the form and content of community supervision. Community correction programs emerged as a response to both the demand for alternatives to crowded institutions and the need for more control over offenders who are supervised in community settings.
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