Fizinio asmens bankroto problema: teisiniai aspektai.
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The modern doctrine of the “fresh start” reflects the differences between the past paradigm of punishment of the insolvent person and the current focus on the economic effectiveness and activeness. Global practice in the field of insolvency shows that the “limited liability rule” is eminently effective in the economic and social perspective. The appending threat of abuse and misapplication of the system might be neutralized through the legal regulation of prevention and rehabilitation means, which are analyzed in this article. The aim of this research is to: 1) present a summary of the paradigm of bankruptcy of natural persons; 2) evaluate the categories of prevention and rehabilitation means set in the Lithuanian concept of the bankruptcy of natural persons; 3) identify the physical factors affecting the bankruptcy of natural persons; 4) provide a conceptual model of rehabilitation after bankruptcy and insolvency prevention measures have been implemented in the field of bankruptcy of natural persons. Clearly, the aims of bankruptcy of natural persons will not be achieved if the debtor is left alone to cope with the reasons and factors that led him to the state of insolvency. The legal response to the insolvency of a natural person might be divided into three categories. The prevention category is usually defined as social and legal instruments through which a person is protected against insolvency, and generally forms part of the economic and social policy of the state. Rehabilitation is defined as the time interval, given to the debtor to recover from the resulting severe financial situation and to restore his or her economic strength. Alleviation measures seek to ensure the creation of the proper and functioning debt recovery mechanism, and to guarantee the satisfaction of the minimum needs of the debtor, particularly the ones of his family members (for example, children), and to give them the opportunity to live in dignity. This research concludes that the most effective rehabilitation model functioning in Lithuania would be the one which gives special attention to the debtor’s good faith conduct, both before the bankruptcy proceedings, and in performing the debt repayment plan, together with the monitoring of such performance. The most effective preventive measures for the insolvency of natural persons can be conditionally divided into the legislative—the regulation of the granting of loans to natural persons (communication of the information on the credit system)—and social (social policy, financial education and guidance or advice on debt issues).
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