Nelaimingas atsitikimas darbe darbuotojui esant neblaiviam : samprata, prevencija ir teisinė atsakomybė.
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Accidents at work related to inebriety are a relevant problem in Lithuania. The statistics of the State Labour Inspectorate is very threatening: every fourth person killed at work and every second person killed in building and construction works was inebriated. Previous studies have proved that due to inebriety the possibility to injure oneself increased 10-15 times. In the present article the legal acts regulating the means of the prevention of risks related to inebriety at work are reviewed; the concept of the inebriated employee is analyzed; the problem of insufficient attention to this concept in legal acts is discussed. Legal acts do not include any provisions regarding the situation when an employee’s inebriety is lower than 0.41 per mille. Thus, it is suggested to define such cases in collective agreements. The prevention means established in legal acts could be divided into two groups. The first group includes the means applied for preventing the use of alcohol at work; the second group includes the means for suspending an inebriated employee from work. The documentation of the prevention of accidents at work is only a part of the employer’s duty which becomes insignificant if the documents presented to the employees are fictitious. For a long time issues related to inebriety had not been regulated by labour law. This gap was filled in when the appropriate recommendations were approved by the Order of the Chief State Labour Inspector of the Republic of Lithuania. The inebriated employees’ suspension from work is not only an employer’s right but also his duty ensuring the prevention of accidents at work and the protection of an employee himself as well as his colleagues. An exceptional situation is when dizziness occurs due to production processes in a company.The analysis of the Labour Code allows to state that employers should estimate this situation in accordance with the provision establishing work suspension when the working atmosphere becomes damaging or dangerous to health. The legal liability of the employers who do not fulfil their duty to suspend inebriated employees from work could be attributed to the administrative liability for the breaches of labour law, labour safety and hygiene acts. The Project of the Code of Administrative Offences includes a separate article establishing legal liability of employers for not suspending inebriated employees from work as well as legal liability of inebriated employees themselves. As the State Labour Inspectorate announces such cases in public, an employer, despite the legal liability, faces public condemnation and damage to reputation. A long-existing attitude that all accidents at work related to inebriety should be regarded as non-disciplinary was recognized by the Constitutional Court as contradictory to the Constitution considering the fact that an accident at work can be a result of unsafe working conditions. Thus, an employee’s inebriety does not eliminate an employer’s duty to ensure safe working conditions.
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