Suvereniteto įgyvendinimo ypatumai ir religijos laisvė valstybės ir bažnyčios konstituciniuose santykiuose. Šveicarijos pavyzdys (I)
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Though regulation of relations between the State and the Church is vested to the remit of cantons according to the provisions of Article 3 and 72.1 of the Swiss Federal Confederation Constitution, the ‘sovereignty of the cult” (Kultushoheit) is to a certain extent restricted by the federal constitutional regulation and democratic values embedded by the civil society therein. The historic development of the nation, as suprema potestas, conditioned the position of the freedom of religion among the essential and significant constitutional freedoms; subsequently, in this variety of constitutional regulation of the relations between the state and the church, it has become as a constitutional norm, a constitutional principal, and as a constitutional object and a goal. This inter alia indicates the primeval nature of national sovereignty in the course of the development of relations between the state and the church in the context of freedom of religion.Regulation of relations between the state and religious communities set by the nation in the constitutions of cantons shall not breach the freedom of religion and the religious concord as odre public, and the prohibition of discrimination (firstly, inter alia, on the basis of religion). These are the imperatives to the law of cantons explicitly defined by the Federal Constitution, whereas the nation, approving the Federal Constitution, has undertaken and obligated cantons to observe ius cogens without violating the essence (Kerngehalt) of fundamental rights (inter alia the freedom of religion). Subsequently, relations between the state and the church (religious communities) shall be understood and interpreted, inter alia, within the context of essential rights, and firstly, within the context of constitutional freedom of religion. Constitutionally protected freedom of religion per definitionem is a complex concept and covers, firstly, the individual (positive and negative), collective and corporate elements of the content, and a priori includes such partial essential rights as the freedom of conscience, faith, confession, cult, religious communities and church, which are considered as integral parts of the freedom of religion in Switzerland. Therefore, the constitutional principal of neutrality in the state attitude on religion and the world-outlook (apart the characteristics of values) shall be considered the most important instrument aimed at ensuring tolerance of persons of different religions and having different world-outlooks, at ensuring freedom of religion and at integration in the state of law thereof. New tendencies in the jurisprudence of the Federal Court of Switzerland indicate that priorities in the state of law are given to the values of integration of persons into a sustainable civil society and to the constitutional principle of neutrality in the world outlook with regards to the freedom of religion, as religion shall not constitute the basis for the request of releasing from the fulfilment of various civil obligations. Members of religious communities shall be reminded by such case law that they live and act within the limits of the state of law, and under the conditions of constitutional values, advocated by the society and aimed at integrating and uniting the community. Freedom of religion is also a constitutional value, however, it is not absolute. The civil society as the nation, suprema potestas, and the developer of the constitution has defined the limits of religion, and the duty of every citizen to respect constitution observing its provisions thereof.
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