Humanizmo principas atleidimo nuo baudžiamosios atsakomybės instituto istorinės raidos kontekste.
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In the doctrine of criminal law there is an approach that criminal law has, first of all, protective and repressive, as well as preventive and informational functions. However, in itself, the application of punishments and other penal repressive measures with regard to persons who committed criminal acts does not mean that the order and justice violated by the criminal acts would be restored and that the interests of the persons who suffered from the criminal acts would be protected and restored. The opinion that the obligation of criminal law is only to punish the culprit and to perform the protective function is denied by a number of provisions of penal law which reveals the humane origin of criminal law. It is manifested by the institutes of exemption from criminal liability, especially when the culprit who reconciled with the victim is exempted from criminal liability. It is also manifested by the entirety of rules for the imposition of punishments. The historical perspective of the evolution of the concept of criminal law shows that from the ancient times the main purpose of criminal law has been understood as, first of all, the application of unavoidable punishment or even revenge principles to all persons who violated the rules of behaviour existing in the community or society. However, the elements of humanness were entrenched in the first written sources of the law of the State of Lithuania as well as other states. In these sources, as one of the forms of the manifestation of this principle, a possibility is provided to agree to make amends to the victim for the inflicted damage, to reconcile with the victim and, thus, to expect a milder punishment or even exemption from it. The institute of exemption from criminal liability is becoming more acceptable and applicable in the process of criminal cases in the course of the consideration of criminal cases, in the course of the consideration of the issue of the compatibility between the punishment and the correction of the persons who committed criminal acts. The institute of exemption from criminal liability shows the humane approach of the state towards the culprit. The legislator, having entrenched the institute of exemption from criminal liability and having established realistic (possible to execute) grounds and conditions for the application thereof, created rational opportunities also to follow the principle of humanness in the course of the administration of justice in criminal cases. However, it is to be assumed that the possibilities of the application of this institute in Lithuania have not been exhausted, since, under the penal law, in the cases of the commitment of even about 90 per cent of criminal acts, which are specified in the Special Part of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Lithuania, it is allowed to decide on the issues of the exemption from criminal liability. The right of the court to mitigate (ease) the situation of the culprit in the course of the administration of justice, which is entrenched in the valid Criminal Code, describes the striving of the legislator to strengthen the humanisation trends in the penal policies in our state. The requirement to seek justice by means of criminal law in every criminal case also means that the principle of justice in criminal cases may be implemented not only by imposing punishment upon the persons who committed criminal acts. The criminal process must contribute, as much as possible and insofar as it is permitted by its specific purpose, to the restoration of legal concord in society; and that is precisely what is determined by the realisation of the principle of justice in the process of criminal cases.
- Straipsniai / Articles