Žudiko socialinės dezadaptacijos raida pagrindiniais jo gyvenimo tarpsniais
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In the article the results of a large multi-disciplinary study of 521 murders in Lithuania is presented. The aim of this study is to investigate the suitability of the most important modern criminological theories for the interpretation of homicides and their committers in this country. The paper presents a part of this study dealing with the development of the future murderer’s personality during his life before the commitment of the crime: childhood, adolescence, youth, and the period just before the commitment of the crime. A questionnaire of 206 questions was designed and distributed to 521 persons convicted for a homicide. In the present article the authors present the results of the analysis of the answers of the murderers’ to 109 questions, focused on different kinds of criminal activities and different manifestations of their social, psychological, economical disadaptation at the main stages of their personal development. For each stage, the correlations between different manifestations of one’s disadaptation and delinquent/criminal activities are examined, a multidimensional component analysis (with Direct Oblimin rotation applying Kaizer normalization) is carried out. Characteristic sets of factors for each stage are presented and interpreted in terms of the interaction between the future murderer’s general disadaptation at a certain stage and an increasing criminal involvement (which can be interpreted in the broadest way: criminal culture, activities, communication, perception, etc.). The concept of criminogenic disadaptation (increased probability for a person to commit a crime, in the present research - a homicide) is proposed. This concept suggests that the basis for the criminogenic disadaptation (at least in the case of this study) is an inner tension caused by the general disadaptation and the factors that channel this tension into a criminal act. It is suggested that this channeling does not reduce the tension and, therefore, causes further criminalization. Therefore, the criminogenic disadaptation causes a situation in which any personal problem directly becomes a new stimulus to criminal activities. With reference to the results of the present empirical research, it is shown that such a path to crime commitment was the most typical among the murderers under investigation. The possible ways to improve the criminal police and crime prevention strategies are suggested in the paper.
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