Politinių partijų finansavimas: aktualijos ir problemos.
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Democratic politics cannot proceed without financial resources. Political parties would be unable to organize themselves, politicians could not communicate with the public, and the election campaigns could not be held if money was not collected. Therefore political funding is not only indispensable, it is necessary. Over the past several years, party financing scandals have shaken countries in every region of the world. This has led to increased contempt for and public disillusionment with parties and politicians, and undermined the public’s confidence in the political process. There is no simple answer to how political finance should be organized, but there is much to be learned from current experiences in different parts of the world. The Western European democracies have emphasized distributive measures, especially cash subsidies to political parties and several countries in the region support fund-raising from individuals by tax incentives. The public money is provided almost without any obligations. Some countries, including Lithuania, have been very dependent on public funds which now have become the dominant source of income. Where regulations are limited it is because the privacy of parties and donors are emphasized. Financing of political parties has led to severe problems in various countries. There are at least two basic reasons: 1. Loopholes: although contributions to political parties and to election campaigns are two of the most important and most direct channels through which money may be use to influence politics, they are not the only ones. Restrictions on the financing of parties and election campaigns are likely to prove ineffective if other forms of politically relevant financing remain unchecked. 2. Inadequate enforcement: In a field as controversial and complex as the funding of parties and campaigns, law require effective supervision and implementation. Enforcement demands a strong authority endowed with sufficient legal powers to supervise, verify, investigate, and if necessary institute legal proceedings. The purpose of legislation has varied from country to country depending on the particular problems which have acted as the spur to reform. Controlling corruption has been a primary aim of the most reform efforts. A common argument for making it compulsory to declare political contributions is that is likely to deter politicians from entering into shady deals in exchange for contributions. Political corruption is a prominent issue and illegal funding of political parties undermines the democratic system as a whole. Parties receive large donations from a few wealthy donors while the income from membership subscriptions are insignificant. The system of regulations on financing of political parties is in permanent fluctuation— the state cannot stop amending and improving this system. No ideal model has been adopted anywhere in the world. Lithuania is on its way of looking for the best model possible.
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