Baudžiamąją atsakomybę užtraukiančių savanaudiškos veiklos aspektų įtaka iš šios veiklos gaunamo turto statusui
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The main purpose of the article is to analyse various kinds of economic activities which, because of some specific features named in the Criminal Code of the Republic of Lithuania (hereinafter—the CC), are equated to criminal offences and also the status of the revenue of these activities. The analysis of both the norms of the CC and the practice of the Lithuanian courts (mainly—Lithuanian Supreme Court) showed that in order to decide what (if any) sanctions should be applied in a particular situation it is not enough to decide whether the economic activity in question was legal or not. It is especially important to find out which aspect of the person’s activity turns it into a criminal act in cases where confiscation of property or other measures related to recovery of assets and alleged illicit enrichment are considered. The author of the article suggests the classification of criminalized economic activities, based on the specific features of every kind of such activity which is the divide point between a legal business and a criminal act. All economic activities that are considered to be the latter can be divided into four groups: a prohibited activity, such as trafficking in human beings, purchase or sale of a child, drug trafficking, etc. (Articles 147, 157, 260 of the CC accordingly); a non-forbidden activity carried out by a natural or legal person having no right to take on such a business, e.g. illegal trade in alcohol and tobacco products carried out by a natural person (Articles 202 section 1 and 200 of the CC accordingly); an economic activity, which is permitted as such, but unlicensed, undeclared or carried out with other major infringements in a particular case, e.g. unauthorized exploitation of natural resources, unlicensed provision of medical services or unlicensed production of beverages carried out by a legal person (Article 202 section 1 of the CC); violations of the requirement of accountability and tax paying of a legal business (Articles 219–223 of the CC). This classification of criminal offences in the field of economic activities is useful in deciding which part of the person’s revenues and property should be assumed to be proceeds of crime and confiscated, also what other economic sanctions should be applied.
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